Removing a melanoma with surgery may not provide a permanent cure. Certain treatments can reduce the chances of melanoma coming back. When melanoma comes back, it is called recurrent melanoma. Once you've had melanoma, there is a higher chance that it will come back—either near the original tumor or at a different place on the skin.
At each visit, your doctor will probably do a full skin examination. Any suspicious growths will be removed and examined for cancer cells. In some cases, your doctor may also recommend x-rays, blood tests, or scans of the chest, liver, bones, and brain to see if the cancer might have come back in other locations.
Treatment for recurrent melanoma depends on where the cancer has come back, which treatments you've already received, and other factors. Treatment is usually designed to slow the progression of the disease and relieve symptoms. It may include more surgery, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, chemotherapy, or isolated limb perfusion.